Gary Panter, Matt Groening, and the Dual History of Punk and Comics and the Outsider, DIY Ethic that Connects Them by Hillary Chute
This article has been published on The Literary Hub website. It begins:
Just about anyone who has paid any attention to pop culture in the past 30 years can picture Bart Simpson. He has popping saucer eyes, a red T-shirt, and what looks like a crown of jagged hair. First appearing on television in 1987, Bart is the perpetually-ten-year-old Simpson family son who quickly became a globally famous figure for pugnacity and rebellious disrespect (“Don’t have a cow, man!”). What few people know, though, is that Bart’s iconic hairline is lovingly lifted from cartoonist Gary Panter’s punk everyman character Jimbo and his spiky hair—meaning that one of America’s most beloved pop culture characters actually springs from a key figure in its groundbreaking punk scene.